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Few have better expressed the tumultuous rise and fall of civilizations better than the great Epic poets of ancient and modern times. By combining elevated language with war, betrayal, romance, adventure, and a whole lot of reflection, these twenty lengthy tomes have captured the essence of whole peoples in single (albeit gigantic) works, ranging from semi-fictional accounts of war to satirical mockeries of misguided heroism.

Epic poetry–or heroic poetry, as some of the medieval poets have called it–follows a certain time-tested formula to portray such grand representations of heroes and their followers. Here are a few recurring patterns to keep in mind when considering these texts:

  • The invocation of a muse. These poets plea to the gods at the very beginning to grant them the power to tell these stories with a certain forcefulness, though some admittedly pretend to do so to claim they are divinely empowered.
  • Many of these begin in medias res, in the middle of the story, and may digress into the past later on in the poem.
  • There are many journeys into the underworld.
  • There are grand battle-scenes punctuated by extended similes, ambitious analogies that stretch the imagination but strive for literary glory.
  • Many will feature the might of armies in long digressions featuring weaponry and war games.

Here is a list of 20 of the greatest Epic poems in the tradition:

1. The Epic of Gilgamesh (~2000 BCE)

It is not surprising that even the oldest known work of literature in the world is an epic poem written on the grandest of scales. Based on the actual Assyrian king, Gilgamesh confronts many of the themes that Homer will tackle in his epic poetry: the human/deity divide, mortality, seduction, legacy. As a young god-king in the poem, Gilgamesh’s arrogant practices trouble the populace until Enkidu, a wildman created by a goddess, challenges the monarch’s power. Although it was written about 4000 years ago, critics have argued that it is a particularly humanistic work, as the demi-gods’ desire adventure and pleasure over ruthless

2.The Homeric Poems – The Iliad (~800 BCE)

Few details are known about who Homer actually was, but the poet’s (or poets’) identity is surely peripheral compared to the impact these two texts have had on Western Civilization. Sparked by the taking of Helen from Sparta, the Greeks, lead by Achilles, advance towards Troy to destroy their adversary. While there is some involvement from the gods, it is again the human factor that is much more significant, as the leader’s fateful spar with Hector is both a celebration of military heroism and a mournful ode to the losses of battle. Many common phrases have their origin in this poem, including the hero’s vulnerable “Achilles’ Heel”, as well as the famous symbol of deception, “the trojan horse”, the receptacle used to bring the soldiers into the Trojan stronghold.


3. The Homeric Poems – The Odyssey (~800 BCE)

The Odyssey, on the other hand, follows the warrior Odysseus as he tries to find his way home from Troy across the Peloponnesian sea. Not only must he fend off the malevolence of gods and the seduction of Calypso,  but he must also get home before the suitors coerce his wife into marriage. As the basis for countless works that have followed it, many of the narrative and poetic devices employed in the poem have gone on to influence what we now consider to be Western Literature.

4. The Mahabharata (350 BCE)

The great Indian epic is one of the longest pieces of literature of all time, but its exhausting length has not stopped it from being a pivotal literary text in the formation of Hindu identity. Narrated by the sage Vyasa, the 220,000 line poem follows a human incarnation of the god Vishnu as two dynasties fight for supremacy in the mythical Elephant City. Not only does the poem itself contain another seminal Hindu text, The Bhagavad Gita, but its panoramic view of everything from spirituality to morality have had an impact on Indian society for thousands of years.

5. Virgil – The Aeneid The Aeneid (19 BCE)

Written at the height of Emperor Augustus’s reign, The Aeneid soon became the great Roman epic, the creation story of what was at that time the most mighty empire in the world. Starting off where the Iliad ends, the poem describes Aeneas’ travel from Troy to Carthage, where he has a brief relationship with Queen Dido. After he abandons her, he travels to Italy to ward off enemies and found Rome. Although he is not as passionate as Dido (she commits suicide in heartbroken misery), his stoic attitude towards his national duty speaks to the nationalistic pride Augustus attempted to impart upon his people.

6. Ovid – Metamorphoses (8 AD)

Ovid’s epic does not contain as much bloodshed and travel as Homer’s and Virgil’s, but his 15-part poem contains the elevated language of the epic. Written in epic dactylic hexameter (six long syllables staggered by shorter ones), the poem is less of a confirmation of myth as much as a retelling of it. While Virgil preached a certain inexorable push towards Roman supremacy, Ovid’s reconfiguration of the Greek and (slightly different) Roman myths emphasize how gods change to men. Some of the selections include the story of Pygmalion–the sculptor who falls in love with his statue, as well as the unforgettable transformation of Daphne into a tree while escaping a malicious suitor.  It sought to deflate the hifalutin air surrounding myth while also educating the public.

7. Firdawsi – The Shahnameh (11th century)

One thing that the great Iranian epic has in common with the ancients is a sense of nostalgia from a lost past. Also known as The Book of Kings, The Shahnameh looks back at the old Zoroastrian traditions in the country while chronicling the entire history of the Persian Empire from its Eurasian reign to its demise in the Muslim conquests of the 7th century. While this may seem more historical than poetic, Firdawsi drives the work forward by including vivid accounts of political intrigue and betrayal.

8. Beowulf (~8th-11th century CE)

Some may know Beowulf as Britain’s national epic, but it is in fact celebrated as a national text in most Nordic countries. Purportedly the strongest man that ever lived, Beowulf is hired by Hrothgar to protect his domain from a grotesque swamp creature, Grendel. Not only does he vanquish him, but he also confronts his mother, various sea creatures a terrifying fire-breathing dragon. The poem was at first lauded for its fantastical elements, but further criticism revived its more important cultural implications–that the Kingdoms lining the North Sea were no longer joining forces to fend off outsiders, but were rather turning on each other, often for petty reasons.

9. The Nibelungenlied (13th century)

This fragmented collection of several thousand stanzas was only rediscovered several centuries after it was written, but this poem’s scale is so grand that it helped revive Teutonic mythology in Germany. About the slow but inevitable decline of the Burgundian people of the North Atlantic, the majority of the poem follows Siegfried, an Achilles-like figure who fights dragons, conquers Nibelungenland and uses his invisibility cloak to defeat enemies. 19th century composer Richard Wagner would later use material from this poem to produce his masterpiece The Ring-Cycle, though later German National Socialists would use it to propagate erroneous assertions about a “Teutonic race.”

10. The Song of Roland (11th-12th century)

As Western Europe emerged from the Dark Ages, Heroic Poetry combined chivalric lore with elevated verse to create many ambitiously-crafted works that reinforced the myth of the knight in shining armor. Le Chanson de Roland, as it was known, tells the story of the 8th century battles between the conquering muslims and the defending Franks as they vie for position in Iberia and the Pyrenees. The poem reinforced many of the knightly “virtues”–gallantry and martyrdom, to name a few, and not until the arrival of Cervantes’ Don Quixote would mark a gradual deflation of this genre’s popularity.

11. The Saga of Grettir the Strong (The Icelandic Sagas) – (13th-14th century)

The Icelandic Sagas are a collection of dozens of mythological prose histories centered around the Viking diaspora of the 10th-11th centuries. One of the most striking examples of these is the Saga of Grettir The Strong, about a powerful outlaw who fends off many enemies before his quick temper and overbearing strength prompts his slow decline. Not only is this a richly-described representation of the difficulties of Nordic life, but like Beowulf, it is also a time capsule marking Northern Europe’s eventual shift from paganism to Christianity.

12. Ludovico Ariosto – Orlando Furioso (1532)

Orlando continues the trend of heroic verse begun by Roland with this more fantastical interpretation of the battles between the Franks and the invading Saracens. Furioso is a valiant warrior charged to save his people, but he is sidetracked by a bout of madness caused by the seductions of Angelica. Just like Virgil’s Aeneid, Orlando Furioso juxtaposes valiant duty with passionate love, but it also romanticizes love by comparing it to a type of identity-subverting madness. Ariosto’s poem, however, recognizes that the passions are a weakness no knight should dabble with, and it always goes back to the importance of duty before anything else.

13. Dante – The Divine Comedy (1308-1321)

T.S. Eliot bestowed unequivocal praise upon Dante’s masterpiece, calling it “’the highest point that poetry has ever reached or ever can reach.” Just as Virgil started off where The Iliad ended, Dante takes Virgil along in his journey through the depth of sin in the first part of the poem, The Inferno. After funnelling through the seven, increasingly-sinful layers of Hell, he begins his ascent through The Purgatorio (Part 2) all the way to The Paradiso (Part 3). Deeply personal but cosmological in scope, the poem helped promote Italian vernacular in a time when the Latinate church reigned over his home country. It is now considered the greatest work of medieval poetry, sublimely connecting contemporary European thought with the then-untapped trove of Classical thought.

14. Luis de Camoëns – The Lusiads (1572)

Before war movies could use flag-bearing ad nauseam to propagate the enduring might of nations, Epic poetry served as a useful tool for empires trying to make a name for themselves. Telling the story of famed explorer Vasco de Gama, The Lusiads is the great Portuguese Epic, written at the height of their intercontinental imperialism. However, Camoëns’ masterpiece would go beyond the adventures, battles and romance to hint at a certain weariness with the conquering mentality of the European nations, sublimely describing the proverbial Saudade the explorers continually suffered from.

15. Edmund Spenser – The Faerie Queen (1590)

Drawing from many of the previous sources on this list, Spenser modeled his epic after the works of Virgil, Ariosto, as well as the philosophy of Aristotle and Cicero. About a knight seeking the hand of the virginal and veracious Una, Spenser tries to connect Queen Elizabeth to the most famous of all British ancestors, King Arthur. The poem was well received by the throne at the time, but the poet’s unique verse form is so enshrouded in ambiguity that few–including Spenser himself–have given clear answers to its more cryptic passages.

16. John Milton – Paradise Lost (1667)

Colloquially known as the great Protestant Epic, Milton retells both the story of the fall of Lucifer (Satan) in heaven and The fall of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. The onset of blindness didn’t stop him from justifying “the ways of God to men” in this work, depicting Satan as an immensely-complex figure in the midst of a brutal war with God in the heavens. However, Milton successfully employs many of the Epic devices first introduced by Homer, including the invocation of the muse, an extensive amount of similes and a series of descriptions of heavenly war games.

 17. Alexander Pope – The Rape of the Lock (1714)

The Rape of the Lock is perhaps one of the most hilarious poetic satires in English literature. Pope, however, uses the many of the aforementioned devices of Epic poetry to inflate the pointless uproar caused by an actual quarrel between two London families in this tale about a cut lock of hair. Considering the breadth of his cataloguing, the extravagant descriptions of card-playing, as well as the ridiculous journey into “the Cave of Spleen” (his own underworld), it is difficult to argue that it doesn’t belong with the more “serious” works in this list.

 18. Epic of Manas (Published in 1792 – Actual Date Unknown)

The small Central Asian country of Kyrgyzstan may not be well-known on the International stage for their literature, but the sheer immensity of this Epic poem is staggering. Considered one of the longest works of poetry in the world, it tells the story of the hero Manas, a kind of figurehead for the warring Kyrgyzs of yesteryear. Recited by traditional manaschi poets, Manas is a cultural icon that has lent its name to many of the country’s most significant institutions.

19. Lord Byron – Don Juan (1819)

Pope’s mock-epic wasn’t the only work to satirize the elevated stature of heroic verse. Byron, who always had a taste for extravagant presentation, uses the elements of Epic Poetry to retell the story of the infamous womanizer with with a particular reversal: instead of being the seducer, he actually gets seduced by the women he is interested in. At first derided by critics as smutty, public opinion soon changed when readers realized that the 16,000 line poem included the masterful use of Byron’s signature ottava rima.

20. Ezra Pound – The Cantos (1915-1962)

Pound’s Cantos is perhaps the most divisive work of the 20th century. Hailed as a masterpiece by some and wholly incoherent by others, it did not help that their initial success collided with his political views, which culminated in various fascist outpourings on Italian radio during the Second World War. Nevertheless, Pound attempts to connect dozens of classical works with modern times, including-but-not-limited-to The Odyssey, The Aeneid, The Sapphic poems and even the writings of Confucius. Encyclopedic but scattered, you can see why their survival has largely been maintained by scholarly study and not public approval.


  1. I was a bit surprised not to find any entries from East Asia in this list. Any of the Four Great Novels is worthy of a place here; whatever be their merits, I doubt Pope & Byron can compare to the Dream of the Red Chamber or even the Tale of Heike.

    It’s also surprising that the little-known (& frankly underwhelming) Epic of Manas is mentioned while the quintessential Central Asian Epic- the Saga of King Gesar- isn’t.

    Going a bit to the South- while it’s heartening that you’ve mentioned the Mahabharata, I’d have included the Ramayana- or at the very least, the Raghuvamsa- in the list too. The latter is considered to be the most technically perfect Sanskrit Epic ever created.

    At any rate, Hinduism has been treated a lot better than any of the African or American cultures… Frankly- this is a very Euro-centric list. I’m an admirer of Dante- but hardly anyone who’s taken an active interest in World mythology would put him on the same pedestal as the composers of the Mahabharata & the Shahnama.

  2. I have trouble understanding how you could have made so many mistakes in your write ups. You do know that neither the Achilles’ Heel or the Trojan Horse are in the Iliad, right? That the Mahabharata follows the Pandarva brothers and not Krisna, right? That Aeneas is anything but stoic once he gets to Latium and that the Emperor of Rome is named Augustus, right? I like your book choices in general, but do I not understand why you would choose to make such a list if you have not actually read any of the books on the list.

    • hmm… have you ever seen ramayana film id like too see the HD one…. like film “300” based on spartans athen, that film really blowing my mind

  3. Scientific Dating of Vedic and Ramayan Era

    Ecological perspective
    History of the Holocene (post last ice age) deserves to be rewritten based on multi-disciplinary scientific evidences. Aryan invasion theory was propagated based on linguistic guesswork, religious hearsay and old outdated archaeological reports. Christianity has long back discarded its 18th century beliefs that world got created on 23rd October, 4004 BC, Biblical flood occurred in 2400 B.C. and that civilizations started expanding and migrating in around 1500 B.C. It is almost unanimously accepted by the scholars and scientists that there have been several cycles of civilizations and that last ice age ended around 10000 B.C., ushering in the beginnings of Holocene i.e. Nutan Yug.
    The melting of ice caps naturally got started near the Equator, resulting in discharge of huge quantities of water which first flowed in the form of rivers in South India. The civilizations developed, populations multiplied over hundreds of years resulting in water scarcity. More adventurous started migrating northwards – initially towards central India and later on towards the Himalayan rivers in the North. Thousands of years of water security provided by Saraswati, Indus and Ganga river systems and world’s most fertile planes cultivated around them naturally facilitated the extra-ordinary development of culture and civilization from around 8000 B.C. After thousands of years water supply from ice-caps started depleting, tectonic movements resulted in drying up of rivers like Saraswati, trade relations flourished and more adventurous people started moving towards Central Asia and Europe. Thus there was neither any end of Vedic civilisation due to imaginary Aryan invasion theory nor were Dravidians ‘aboriginal savages’ of North India. The rise and fall of Vedic Civilisation is thus attributable to ecological cycle post last ice age and not to any ‘Aryan invasion’

    Sky views in Rigveda
    There are 53 references in Rigveda as prayers offered to Aswinis at dawn. The description clearly points to the observation of the pair of stars in the Aries constellation (referred to as Aashvin or Asvini) just before sunrise as a ritual to mark the year beginning. Using Planetarium software, we find that the Winter Solstice occurred on 19 December, 7000 BC at 0735 hrs as shown in Figure 1. This is the earliest reference to Vedic calendar with year beginning at Winter Solstice, found in Rigveda (5-77-1/2; 1-46-14; 7-69-3/2). Heliacal rising of Ashwini Nakshatra (Aries) can be seen to occur on 5th January, 7000 BC, marking the year beginning (Fig. 1

  4. Nice list. How about Sundiata [W. Africa] or Journey to the West [China] (not sure if this one is a poem in original format though?)?

  5. The works is very good. But there not mentioned about Mohashashan written by Kaykobad. This is the biggest Bengali epics (verse more than 18,500).

  6. I think this person forgot El Cid in the list…it’s also good for my standards. I know Beowulf, Homer Series, The Nibelungenlied (Awesome Spoiler: Siegfried died), Song of Roland, and many Greek Epics, but El Cid from Spain is also good!

  7. It is a great list and it is weird that people gets angry about the ranking… They are “actually chronologically” listed. Here’s my own top 20, ranked by importance and greatness:
    1. The Iliad – Homer
    2. The Odyssey – Homer
    3. The Divine Comedy – Dante Alighieri
    4. The Aeneid – Virgil
    5. Paradise Lost – John Milton
    6. The Mahabharata
    7. Metamorphoses – Ovid
    8. The Epic of Gilgamesh
    9. Beowulf
    10. The Song of Roland
    11. The Shahnameh – Firdewsi
    12. Don Juan – Lord Byron
    13. The Faerie Queene – Edmund Spenser
    14. Ramayana – Valmiki
    15. The Rape of the Lock – Alexander Pope (mock epic)
    16. The Nibelungenlied
    17. Theogony – Hesiod
    18. The Waste Land – T. S. Eliot (unusual: includes modernist aspects)
    19. Cantar de Mio Cid
    20. Song of Hiawatha – Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

  8. Who let such a dumb man to create the list of world’s greatest 20 epics?? Seriously!

    Where is “Thirukkural” ? It is the world’s greatest epic written in the world’s oldest language! “தமிழ் (Tamil)”

      • Georgian Famous poet
        Shota Rustaveli
        Shota Rustaveli was a Georgian poet of the 12th century, and the greatest author of classic Georgian secular literature. He was the author of “The Knight in the Panther’s Skin” which is the Georgian national epic poem. Little is known of his life; most of what we know has been handed down through folk tradition and legend. It is believed that Rustaveli was born between 1160 and 1165 (some have it as late as 1172).

  9. It’s strange you left out Ramayana, the epic that transformed whole of South East Asia from the north of India to the forests of Cambodia. It is a 24000 verse Sanskrit poem that probably is the oldest of them all.

  10. At my age (80 years old) I’m still overwhelmed with brief review of these EPIC books of poetry which I learned in my early school years.
    Paradise Lost and the Divine Comedy are the greatest.

  11. Mahabharata is the oldest ,largest and greatest epic in the world. You are not mentioned the era of the Mahabharata and also missing the second one Ramayana.

  12. I have just completed a 27,600 word Novella in Rhyming Narrative Verse written in trochaic tetrameter catalectic – in 4 line stanzas, about Native Americans immediately prior to the American Indian Wars. The Novella is a work of fiction and the inclusion of catalexis, the dropping of the last beat or syllable at the end of lines 2 and 4 in each stanza, helps to create an exciting read that makes it read more like a novel than a poem. In fact, the 8-7, 8-7 beat in each stanza is very much like a thumping Lakota war drum.
    The work is nothing like Longfellow’s Hiawatha.The plot’s inclusion of ambition, politics jealousy, murder, mystery, love, hatred and revenge etc, spread across its eleven native american characters is, I believe, unique. I am a senior writer, 75 yrs of age living in Australia and not particularly computer literate. I would like to present my work in the USA but do not know how to do it. Can anyone help?

  13. Should have included Star Wars. 😉

    On a more serious note, this is a pretty good list. I might also suggest the Lay of the Host of Igor, it’s a medieval Russian epic about a military expedition by Prince Igor against the pagan Polovtsians, also known as the Cumans.

  14. Have you ever heard of the epic poem “The marriage of Smailagić Meho” of Avdo Međedović, the most famous Bosniak poet. The song has 12.311 verses.

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  16. The Mahabharatha was, is and will always remain the greatest epic mankind has ever written and will ever be able to write. Nothing compared earlier to it and nothing can compare to it.

    • This sentence is very true- “The Mahabharatha was, is and will always remain the greatest epic mankind has ever written and will ever be able to write”. I have also read ‘The epic of gilgamesh’ and ‘The Iliad’, they are no near to stand in front of the great epic ‘Mahabharatha’.

  17. Georgian Famous poet
    Shota Rustaveli
    Shota Rustaveli was a Georgian poet of the 12th century, and the greatest author of classic Georgian secular literature. He was the author of “The Knight in the Panther’s Skin” which is the Georgian national epic poem. Little is known of his life; most of what we know has been handed down through folk tradition and legend. It is believed that Rustaveli was born between 1160 and 1165 (some have it as late as 1172).

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