By May Huang

A narrative technique that has perplexed and fascinated readers for centuries, the stream of consciousness technique has been used by many writers to trace the seamless (and oft erratic) musings of characters such as Mrs. Dalloway and Stephen Dedalus. Below are 10 writers whose works – ranked amongst the finest in English literature – feature the stream of consciousness technique.

Okay, but what is Stream of Consciousness?

Stream of Consciousness is a type of writing that originated with the works of psychologist William James (Brother of Novelist Emeritus Henry James). Basically, its purpose is to emulate the passage of thought through your mind without any inhibitors. For that reason, sentences become longer, less organized and more sporadic in style. Its lack of structure is not for everybody, but that doesn’t mean there isn’t any order. Stream of consciousness permits deeper patterns of order to emerge, ones based on the genuine movement of information in your brain. It also permits writers to simulate different forms of consciousness, such as dreams, comas, drug use and hallucinatory seances.

  1. Dorothy Richardson

Considered the pioneer of the stream-of-consciousness technique, 20th century British author Dorothy Richardson was the first author to publish a full length stream-of-consciousness novel: Pointed Roofs. In fact, it was in reviewing Pointed Roofs that British author May Sinclaire first coined the term ‘stream-of-consciousness’ in April 1918.

On one side was the little grey river, on the other long wet grass repelling and depressing. Not far ahead was the roadway which led, she supposed to the farm where they were to drink new milk. She would have to walk with someone when they came to the road, and talk. She wondered whether this early morning walk would come, now, every day. Her heart sank at the thought.” from Pointed Roofs

  1. William Faulkner

Recipient of both the Nobel Prize in Literature and the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, American author William Faulkner used the stream of consciousness technique to great effect in The Sound and the Fury and As I Lay Dying, exploring the depths of different characters’ inner conflict through disjointed, unpunctuated narrative. In one short paragraph, the reader is at once exposed to different smells, sounds and movement:

Nonsense you look like a girl you are lots younger than Candace color in your cheeks like a girl A face reproachful tearful an odor of camphor and of tears a voice weeping steadily and softly beyond the twilit door the twilight-colored smell of honey suckle. Bringing empty trunks down the attic stairs they sounded like coffins […]” – from As I Lay Dying

  1. James Joyce

Dublin born writer James Joyce employed the stream-of-consciousness style in all of his novels, including Finnegans Wake, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and of course – the 1000-page, 265,000-word long Ulysses. It is easy to get lost in any paragraph in the novel, as the protagonist Stephen Dedalus guides us quickly – and disjointedly – through his thoughts and surroundings. One moment he is asking himself, “Would you go back to then?” and the next he is on Grafton street, pondering whether to buy a pincushion while the “jingle of harnesses” sounds in his ears. Then, out of the blue, he answers himself and concludes that it would be “useless to go back.” Next thing you know, he’s moved on to Duke Street and we’re not quite sure how he – or we – got there.

  1. Virginia Woolf


Recognized as the most important feminist writer (and perhaps one of the most important writers in general) of all time, Virginia Woolf used the stream-of-consciousness technique to great significance in her work. Paying scrupulous attention to detail and describing even “the footman’s hand,” “parcels and umbrellas.” Woolf takes readers through different minds, perspectives and surroundings in Mrs. Dalloway. She makes us wonder who is speaking – and about what.

  1. Marcel Proust

French writer Marcel Proust also used the stream-of-consciousness style in his works, notably in the seven-volume long Remembrance of Things Past, in which even the simple childhood memory of eating a petite madeleine plunges one into the “vast structure of recollection.” Reading Proust, one is caught up in the taste and smell of the pastry, “the water-lilies on the Vivonne” and “Sunday mornings at Combray” – all of which are memories that converge in the narrator’s stream of consciousness.

  1. Jack Kerouac

American writer Jack Kerouac’s On the Road is now remembered as one of the defining novels of the Beat Generation – as well as a modern example of stream-of-consciousness writing. Originally written over a course of 3 weeks on one scroll of paper (deemed the ‘original scroll’), On the Road is based on Kerouac’s road trip across America, a journey at times vividly recounted in continuous stream-of-consciousness prose, fusing both description of land and memory:

The brown hills led off towards Nevada; to the South was my legendary Hollywood; to the North the mysterious Shasta country. Down below was everything: the barracks where we stole our tiny box of condiments, where Dostioffski’s tiny face had glared at us […]” from On the Road

  1. José Saramago

Portuguese Nobel Prize Laureate Jose Saramago, like Woolf, also liked to alternative between narratives and use stream-of-consciousness in his writing. In Blindness, Saramago uses long sentences and eschews quotation marks to enhance the seamlessness of his prose, allowing the stream-of-consciousness to run free of interruption:

The very air in the ward seemed to have become heavier, emitting strong lingering odours, with sudden wafts that were simply nauseating, What will this place be like within a week, he asked himself, and it horrified him to think that in a week’s time, they would still be confined here, Assuming there won’t be any problems with food supplies, and who can be sure there isn’t already a shortage, I doubt, for example, whether those outside have any idea from one minute to the next…” – from Blindness

  1. Samuel Backett

The second French writer on this list, Samuel Beckett used the stream of consciousness technique in his Three Novels (Molloy, Malone Dies and the Unnamable) to deliver a stream of observations and musings on time and existence. In fact, Molloy defies conventional grammar and tense rules in order to emphasize the continuity of the narrator’s non-stop train of thought:

What shall I do? What shall I do? now low, a murmur, now precise as the headwaiter’s And to follow? and often rising to a scream. And in the end, or almost, to be abroad alone, by unknown ways, in the gathering night, with a stick.” – from Molloy

  1. Fyodor Dostoevsky

Although Crime and Punishment is Russian writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky’s best-known work, his 1864 novella Notes from Underground also sits amongst the classics of Russian literature. Throughout the novel, the ‘Underground Man’ expresses his continuous train of thought through long, comma-filled sentences (even in brackets).

If you take, for instance, the antithesis of the normal man, that is, the man of acute consciousness, who has come, of course, not out of the lap of nature but out of a retort (this is almost mysticism, gentlemen, but I suspect this, too), this retort-made man is sometimes so nonplussed in the presence of his antithesis that with all his exaggerated consciousness he genuinely thinks of himself as a mouse and not a man. It may be an acutely conscious mouse, yet it is a mouse, while the other is a man, and therefore, et caetera, et caetera.” from Notes from Underground

  1. Toni Morrison

83 year old African American author Toni Morrison published several books on slavery, the most compelling of which is undoubtedly Beloved. The story of a ‘ghost baby’ who returns to her family in the form of a grown woman, Beloved is both a harrowing tale about the horrors of slavery as it is a testament to the unrelenting power of memory. Morrison uses stream of consciousness in one of the final chapters to reveal the intermingling of three characters’ thoughts:


You are my sister

You are my daughter

You are my face; you are me

I have found you again; you have come back to me

You are my Beloved

You are mine

You are mine

You are mine

I have your milk

I have your smile

I will take care of you

You are my face; I am you. Why did you leave me

who am you?” – from Beloved

Let us know what you think of our selection!


  1. You’ve made 2 mistakes. Samuel Beckett is Irish not French. And your Faulkner quote comes from The Sound and the Fury, from the 2nd section (Quentin’s).

      • He would still be considered Irish, and is Irish. I agree with Bill that it is inaccurate and misleading to say he’s French.
        Also think Robert Penn Warren, Pullitzer prize winner, should come above that last entry at least for a place on this list. His “The Cave” is an entire novel in tis style, mesmerizing, as opposed to just a final chapter.
        All this notwithstanding, a good list and thank you for compiling it.
        P.S. Small typo to correct: “Portuguese Nobel Prize Laureate Jose Saramago, like Woolf, also liked to ALTERNATE between narratives “

  2. Fyodor Dostoevsky can not be termed in this category of writers…..because the term STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS was adopted from psychology and coined during the lost generations…..between the period of two great wars…..between…1918-1945 and this is not the period of Dostoevsky.

    • Good point. However, even before the name was coined, any writer could have been using the style. A rose by any other name and all….

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  4. Nice article! Kerouac’s book ‘Lonesome Traveller’ is an even more striking example of ‘stream of consciousness’. But he called it ‘spontaneous prose’.

  5. Decades ago, one of my readers said that she loved my stream-of-consciousness style. At the time, I was stuffing envelopes with paper covered in my tiny handwriting, front and back, restricting myself to 6 sheets of 8 1/2 X 11″ paper, to keep under the 1 oz. limit for a first class postage stamp.

    Thanks for helping me understand what she meant.

  6. But still… a new writer, has to have, lots of money, or ‘assets’ to sell or rent, to market the book of words of squirts of thoughts of passions of expressions.

  7. Earlier authors such as Shakespeare’s Hamlet: ‘to be or not to be, etc

    Joyce credits the French author Dujardin for inspiring him re stream of consciousness (backcover of Portrait of an Artist)

    • Strange… i am reading during these days ” letters to Alen Ginsberg” from William Burroughs… and what is strange is that i’ve never heard about this author since i’ve taken his book at the library… and meet his name for the second time in your commentary… 🙂
      Have a nice day !

  8. There seems to be a consensus misunderstanding, even by respected critics and list-makers, between “stream of consciousness” as a narrative technique, and “interior monologue” as — not only a narrative technique — but as parts of any normal narrative in which we are given the subjective musing of a character. The difference is in “form,” not necessarily content. The form of stream of consciousness is presented elliptically, distorted, sentences broken and phrases that are presented in a non-linear way, such that the reader experiences the sense of the brain/mind kaleidescopically (not in the mood to check the spelling!) experiencing all experience in a holistic onslaught: thoughts, images, randomness, sensations, all in a jumble, like a stream, or if presented in an extreme way, a raging river. However, when the sentences are constructed properly and grammatically, and one thought seems to lead to the next in a linear fashion, this is properly not stream of consciousness but good ole traditional interior monologue. Many of your examples or books on the list are NOT stream of consciousness, but interior monologue, or — if I may extend the metaphor — paths of consciousness, orderly progressions from one grammatically and syntactically proper sentence to another, NOT all jumbled up as a raging river. So there’s STREAMS of consciousness, and interior monologues: PATHS of consciousness.

  9. Informative site. However, I wish there was some discussion on what exactly constitutes “stream-of-consciousness”. There’s narration that actually reads like stream-of-consciousness, and there’s narration that tends to waver from stream-of-consciousness to first person pov. Is it not an issue to discern if a narrative voice consistently sounds as if they are confined to thoughts within their own head verses narrating a story by attempting to sound as if the narrative voice is coming from inside the narrator’s head, inserting “Now what? Can’t excuse the fact that she suckered me just because of that ass. Sure hope her gun isn’t loaded. Sure am hungry. Papa would have known what to do. Great, she made it through the door. I’ll hide under the bed.”

  10. I’m just wondering why Kurt Vonnegut didn’t make your list. Who better than to cite as a writer whose characters get so lost in their own musings as to lose track of time, space, etc. and whose stories are delivered in an obviously non-linear fashion? So it goes!

  11. So using steam of consciouness as a writing exercise ic as n be done by anyone writing as the incessant flow of memories images etc

  12. No Cormac McCarthy? Wow. He’s been the best novelist using SoC for the past 35 years.
    This ommission does not bode well for The credibility of this list.

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